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vendredi 8 mars 2013

Parent Praise to 1- to 3-Year-Olds Predicts Children’s Motivational Frameworks 5 Years Later

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Child Development, xxxx 2013, Volume 00, Number 0, Pages 1–16

Elizabeth A. Gunderson
University of Chicago

Sarah J. Gripshover, Carissa Romero, and
Carol S. Dweck
Stanford University

Susan Goldin-Meadow and Susan C. Levine
University of Chicago


In laboratory studies, praising children’s effort encourages them to adopt incremental motivational frameworks—they believe ability is malleable, attribute success to hard work, enjoy challenges, and generate strategies for improvement. In contrast, praising children’s inherent abilities encourages them to adopt fixed-ability frameworks. Does the praise parents spontaneously give children at home show the same effects? Although parents’ early praise of inherent characteristics was not associated with children’s later fixed-ability frameworks, parents’ praise of children’s effort at 14–38 months (N = 53) did predict incremental frameworks at 7–8 years, suggesting that causal mechanisms identified in experimental work may be operating in home environments.