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vendredi 20 mai 2011

Literacy quotes - older struggling readers de Kerry Hempenstall

“For older students with LD who continue to struggle in reading, the
challenge is providing instruction that is powerful enough to narrow or
close the gap with grade-level standards in reading. This means that
students who previously have struggled to even keep pace with
expectations for average yearly growth in reading must now make
considerably more than expected yearly growth each year if they are to
catch up. While adolescence is not too late to intervene, intervention
must be commensurate with the amount and breadth of improvement students
must make to eventually participate in grade-level reading tasks.
Because most intervention studies provide only a limited amount of
instruction over a relatively short period of time, we do not yet have a
clear understanding of all the conditions that must be in place to close
the gap for older students with serious reading disabilities. However,
it does seem likely that the intensity and amounts of instruction
necessary to close the gap for many older students with LD will be
considerably beyond what is currently being provided in most middle and
high schools”.
Roberts, G., Torgesen, J.K., Boardman, A., & Scammacca, N. (2008)
Evidence-based strategies for reading instruction of older students with
learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice 23(2),
63–69.
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“Many older struggling readers are victims of poor early reading
instruction. They were not taught or were insufficiently taught the
basic skills necessary for fluent reading and deep processing of text.
Some of these students are able to catch up in critical reading skills
if provided with additional, sustained instruction in small, focused
instructional groups (Torgesen, 2005). Of course, the older and further
behind the student, the more ground he or she will have to cover,
impacting the intensity and duration of necessary intervention. However,
for many students in this situation, reading at grade level with good
comprehension is a reasonable goal”.
Roberts, G., Torgesen, J.K., Boardman, A., & Scammacca, N. (2008).
Evidence-based strategies for reading instruction of older students with
learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 23,
63.
________________________________________
“Older students with reading difficulties benefit from interventions
focused both at the word level and at the text level. Identifying need
and intervening accordingly in the appropriate areas (e.g., vocabulary,
word reading, comprehension strategies, and so on) is associated with
improved outcomes for older students with reading difficulties”.
Scammacca, N., Roberts, G., Vaughn. S., Edmonds, M., Wexler, J.,
Reutebuch, C. K., & Torgesen, J. K. (2007).  Interventions for
adolescent struggling readers: A meta-analysis with implications for
practice. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on
Instruction.
http://flare.ucf.edu/Research/Interventions%20for%20Struggling%20Readers.pdf
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“Phonological decoding made a significant unique contribution to reading
comprehension for the eighth/ninth-grade group, to spelling for the
fourth/fifth- and eighth/ninth-grade groups, and to the decoding rate
and accuracy measures for all three groups, with only three exceptions”.
Nagy, W., Berninger, V.W., & Abbott, R.D. (2006). Contributions of
morphology beyond phonology to literacy outcomes of upper elementary and
middle-school students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1),
134-147.
________________________________________
“Even among experienced readers individual differences in comprehension
of text reflect efficiency of phonological processing at the word
level”.
Shankweiler, D., Lundquist, E., Dreyer, L. G., & Dickinson, C. C.
(1996). Reading and spelling difficulties in high school students:
Causes and consequences. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary
Journal, 8, 267-294.
________________________________________
“In this group of higprospectively monitored since kindergarten, our findings indicate that
difficulty with phonologic awareness represents the most robust
characteristic of reading disability”.
Shaywitz, S. E., Fletcher, J. M., Holahan, J. M., Shneider, A.E.,
Marchione, K., Stuebing, K. K., Francis, D. J., Pugh K.R., Shaywitz, B.
(1999). Persistence of dyslexia: The Connecticut longitudinal study at
adolescence. Pediatrics, 104, 1351-1359.
________________________________________
“Together, these findings provide evidence that dyslexic adults are not,
as may have been assumed, unable to profit from remedial practice,"
wrote the researchers. "In fact, the same strategies that are effective
in teaching children phonological awareness skills are helpful in
adults. Further, they are accompanied by neural changes known to
underlie reading remediation of developmental dyslexia in childhood
combined with those previously observed during the rehabilitation of
adults with acquired dyslexia [due to brain damage].”
Eden, G. F., Jones, K.M., Cappell, K., Gareau, L., Wood, F.B., Zeffiro,
T.A., Dietz, N.A.E., Agnew, J.A. and Flowers, D.L. (2004).
Neurophysiological recovery and compensation after remediation in adult
developmental dyslexia, Neuron, 44, 411–422.
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“Many (but not all) older children with severe reading disabilities
(grades 3 through 5) can significantly improve their reading skills with
intensive intervention approaches that emphasise direct remediation of
phonological processing and the systematic integration of these
phonological skills into phonics instruction, textual reading, and
reading comprehension strategies” p. 579.
Lyon, G. R., & Moats, L.C. (1997). Critical conceptual and
methodological considerations in reading intervention research. Journal
of Learning Disabilities, 30, 578-588.
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From Kerry
 There is little doubt that the failure to establish reading skills
early leads to a cascading skill deficit that pervades all curriculum
areas eventually. Additionally, the deleterious effects on motivation
can so severe for some students as to be largely intractable. Further,
the years of employing inadequate reading strategies can produce a
strong resistance to the modifications of style necessary for progress.
The modifications themselves tend to slow the reading rate initially,
and also require markedly increased attention to graphemic detail - both
of these changes can irritate students sufficiently to preclude their
serious cooperation. A group of poor readers will almost inevitably
contain a higher than average proportion of students with "interesting"
behaviours - making teaching just that little bit more challenging. The
years of little exposure to print compared with their reading-facile
peers can leave these students with a vocabulary insufficient to cope
with the complexity of language in secondary school texts.

It is the understanding of the alphabetic principle that allows students
to decipher novel words. Using the alphabetic principle as a cipher
represents what Perfetti (1991) calls a productive process in contrast
to the very limited process of memorising words. Share (1995) sees this
phonological recoding process as critical to the development of skilled
reading, and describes it as being "... a self-teaching mechanism,
enabling the learner to acquire the detailed orthographic
representations necessary for rapid, autonomous, visual word
recognition" (p. 152). This point is also critically important in
designing effective programs for older students. Tempting as it may be
to teach whole word recognition to older struggling readers because the
phonic strategies seem so ‘babyish’, one cannot bypass the ‘sounding-out’
stage. It is a necessary step on the path to automatic whole word
recognition. It is only by practising these steps that ‘word pictures’
arise. An interesting study by Shankweiler, Lundquist, Dreyer, and
Dickinson (1996) provides evidence forproblem areas and provides an intervention focus.

"Basic skills in reading and spelling and supporting metalinguistic
abilities were assessed in ninth and tenth grade students in two school
settings. Students attending a private high school for the learning
disabled comprised one group and the other comprised low to middle range
students from a public high school. Both the LD students and the regular
high school students displayed deficiencies in spelling and in decoding,
a factor in reading difficulty that is commonly supposed to dwindle in
importance after the elementary school years. Treating the overlapping
groups as a single sample, multiple regression analysis was used to
investigate the contribution of non-word decoding skill and phonological
and morphological awareness to spelling ability. The analysis revealed
that decoding was the major component, predicting about half of the
variance in spelling. The effect of phonological awareness was largely
hidden by its high correlation with decoding, but was a significant
predictor of spelling in its own right. Morphological awareness
predicted spelling skill when the words to be spelled were
morphologically complex. An additional study showed that differences in
decoding and spelling ability were associated with differences in
comprehension after controlling for reading experience and vocabulary.
Even among experienced readers individual differences in comprehension
of text reflect efficiency of phonological processing at the word
level." (Shankweiler, Lundquist, Dreyer, & Dickinson, 1996. p.267)
Shankweiler, D., Lundquist, E., Dreyer, L. G., & Dickinson, C. C.
(1996). Reading and spelling difficulties in high school students:
Causes and consequences. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary
Journal, 8, 267-294.
Perfetti, C. A. (1991). Representations and awareness in the acquisition
of reading competence. In L. Rieben, & C. A. Perfetti (Eds.), Learning
to read: Basic research and its implications, pp. 33-44. NJ: Lawrence
Erlbaum.
Share, D. L. (1995). Phonological recoding and self-teaching: Sine qua
non of reading acquisition. Cognition, 55, 151-218.
Stanovich, K. E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences
of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading
Research Quarterly, 21, 360-406.

________________________________________
“Both Year 9 and 10 LD students and regular high school students
displayed deficiencies in spelling and in decoding, a factor in reading
difficulty that is commonly supposed to dwindle in importance after the
elementary school years. Data analysis revealed that decoding was the
major component. Differences in decoding and spelling ability were
associated with differences in comprehension after controlling for
reading experience and vocabulary. Even among experienced readers
individual differences in comprehension of text reflect efficiency of
phonological processing at the word level”.
Shankweiler, D., Lundquist, E., Dreyer, L. G., & Dickinson, C. C.
(1996). Reading and spelling difficulties in high school students:
Causes and consequences. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary
Journal, 8, 267-294.
________________________________________
“Of students identified as reading disabled in Year 3, 75% will remain
so at Year 9”.
Francis, D.J., Shaywitz, S.E., Stuebing, K.K., Shaywitz, B.A., &
Fletcher, J.M. (1996). Developmental lag versus deficit models of
reading disability: A longitudinal, individual growth curves analysis.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 3-17.
Shaywitz, S. E., Escobar, M. D., Shaywitz, B. A., Fletcher, J.M., &
Makuch, R. (1992). Distribution and temporal stability of dyslexia in an
epidemiological sample of 414 children followed longitudinally. New
England Journal of Medicine, 326, 145-150.

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Some similar findings:
“In a study of 3000 Australian students, 30% of 9 year olds still hadn’t
mastered letter sounds, arguably the most basic phonic skill. A similar
proportion of children entering high school continue to display
confusion between names and sounds. Over 72% of children entering high
school were unable to read phonetically regular 3 and 4 syllabic words.
Contrast with official figures: In 2001 the Australian public was
assured that ‘only’ about 19% of grade 3 (age 9) children failed to meet
the national standards”.
Harrison, B. (2002, April). Do we have a literacy crisis? Reading Reform
Foundation Newsletter, 48. [On-Line]. Available:
http://www.rrf.org.uk/do%20we%20have%20a%20literacy%20crisis.htm
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“Juel (1988) found that the probability of a poor reader in first grade
remaining a poor reader at the end of fourth grade was .88. Satz,
Fletcher, Clark, and Morris (1981) found that 93.9% of severely poor
readers in second grade continued to be poor readers in fifth grade.
Scarborough (1998b) found similar results for students from second grade
to eighth grade”.
Juel, C. (1988). Learning to read & write: A longitudinal study of 54
children from first through fourth grades. Journal of Educational
Psychology, 80, 437-447.
Satz, P., Fletcher, J. M., Clark, W., & Morris, R. (1981). Lag, deficit,
rate and delay constructs in specific learning disabilities: A
re-examination. In A. Ansara, N. Geschwind, A. Galaburda, M. Albert, &
N. Gartrell (Eds.), Sex differences in dyslexia (pp. 129-150). Towson,
MD: The Orton Dyslexia Society.
Scarborough, H. S. (1998b). Predicting the future achievement of second
graders with reading disabilities: Contributions of phonemic awareness,
verbal memory, rapid naming, and IQ. Annals of Dyslexia, 48, 114-136.

________________________________________
"...a longitudinal study of students with poor word identification
skills in the third grade (Felton & Wood, 1992) indicated that most of
these students failed to significantly improve their skills by the end
of eighth grade."
Felton, R. H., & Pepper, P. P. (1995). Early identification and
intervention of phonological deficit in kindergarten and early
elementary children at risk for reading disability. School Psychology
Review, 24, 405-414.

________________________________________
“If reading assistance fails to exert a significant impact on the
reading performance of low-achieving older readers one reason is that
the instruction provided is not sufficiently intense.”
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2000).
National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read. [On-Line]. Available:
http://www.nationalreadingpanel.org.
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“We found that extended practice was particularly important toward
increasing the magnitude of treatment outcomes”.
Swanson, H.L. (2001). Research on interventions for adolescents with
learning disabilities: A meta-analysis of outcomes related to
higher-order processing. The Elementary School Journal, 101, 331-348.
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“This much is certain: for students identified as having LD, wide
reading or repeated reading by itself should never substitute for
systematic, explicit instruction in word study and comprehension
strategy use. Indeed, fluency instruction and practice may be most
effective when combined with instruction on word-level reading skills
and comprehension (Edmonds et al., in press). The idea is that improved
fluency unleashes cognitive resources while comprehension strategy
instruction provides the older readers with guidance on the use of these
newly available resources (Willingham, 2006)”.
Roberts, G., Torgesen, J.K., Boardman, A., & Scammacca, N. (2008)
Evidence-based strategies for reading instruction of older students with
learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice 23(2),
63–69.
________________________________________
From Kerry Hempenstall:
Can intervention be successful, given the circumstances militating
against effectiveness when reading issues are addresses at a late stage?
There is not a great deal of published empirical evidence at this level.
In the RMIT Psychology CliniCorrective Reading very successfully. It is one of the 3 approaches
(Direct Instruction) supported in "An Educators' Guide to School-wide
Reform". The 141-page report from American Institutes for Research,
found that only the programs Direct Instruction, High Schools That Work,
and Success for All had adequate evidence for effectiveness in reading
instruction. Commissioned by five education groups-including the
National Education Association and the American Federation of Teachers.
See the report at www.aasa.org/Reform/index.htm

In the Clinic, we have trained teachers, aides and parents to implement
the programs, which have the advantage of being self-contained - thus
there is no requirement that the person presenting the program be a
reading teacher. Program fidelity is very important - in the Clinic we
provide some initial training, monitor the presenters during the
program, and ensure all mastery tests are completed. Given these
caveats, the Corrective Reading program is measurably and noticeably
effective in most circumstances, whether presented by teachers in groups
(up to 15) or by parents or aides individually. There is no quick fix
however - gains, in my experience are of the order of 18 months in the 3
months or so it optimally takes to complete 65 lessons. An 18 month gain
in a Year 7 student formerly reading at Grade 3 is impressive, but
insufficient to presume the student can subsequently progress unaided.
The programs are sequential, so given the commitment, continues progress
will occur as more advanced levels are introduced. The effects do not
appear to be transient nor related to novelty.

In the numerous evaluations I have completed over many years, I have
noted that gains are generally maintained and progress continues while
programs are in operation. In my doctoral thesis which involved
providing one level of the CRP to 134 mid to upper primary school
students, and comparing the outcome with 72 waitlist students, a very
large effect size of 1.34 on Word Attack (Woodcock) was noted for the
experimental group and an effect size of only 0.15 for the
non-intervention group. A few students who continued with a subsequent
level of the program achieved a similarly large effect size of 1.63 from
the end of the first to the conclusion of the second level.

Hempenstall, K. (1997). The effects on the phonological processing
skills of disabled readers of participating in Direct Instruction
reading programs. Australian Digital Theses Program, RMIT University
Library. Retrieved September 5, 2005, from
http://adt.lib.rmit.edu.au/adt/uploads/approved/adt-VIT20050628.114735/public/02whole.pdf
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